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Monday, March 16, 2009

Research Methodology

What is Research?
  • It is all about search of knowledge or search for knowledge.
  • Research is scientific and systematic search for related information about specific topics and its study.
  • It consist of defining and redefining the problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solution(s), collecting, organizing and evaluating data making deductions and reaching conclusions (Reference: Clifford Woody).
Purpose of Research
  • To discover answers to questions through application of scientific processes.
Types of Research Studies and Their Objectives
  • Exploratory research studies: Objective is to get familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it.
  • Descriptive research studies: Objective is to portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, group or situation.
  • Diagnostic research studies: Objective is to determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else.
  • Hypothesis testing research studies: Objective is to test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between variables.
Research Methodology Steps
  1. Study and review of existing literature.
  2. Formulation of hypothesis and identification of objectives.
  3. Pilot study through
    - Questionnaires.
    - Interviews.
    - Observations.
  4. Data collection, analysis and conclusions of pilot study.
  5. Detailed study through
    - Questionnaires.
    - Interviews.
    - Observations.
  6. Data collection from the detailed study.
  7. Data analysis from detailed study.
  8. Findings and conclusions of the research study and suggestions.
Primary and Secondary Data
  • For research work, data is collected.
  • Data can be primary data or secondary data.
  • Secondary data is the data that already exists somewhere. This was not collected specifically for the research work being now undertaken by the researcher. This may have been collected by someone or some organization under different context for different purposes.
  • Researcher can always look into the available secondary data to see if the research problem can be partially or fully solved by using the secondary data.
  • When the problem cannot be solved only by the existing secondary data, primary data collection is a must.
  • Many times, the secondary data may be old, incomplete, unreliable or inaccurate and may not be useful.
  • Primary data is the freshly collected data by the researcher for his specific purpose for his specific research project.
  • Collection of primary data consumes more resources and therefore, is more expensive.
  • Most research projects necessarily involve collection of some primary data using appropriate research approaches.
Research Report
  • Research report is a written report on research work done.
  • It must be presented in a satisfactory and acceptable form.
  • Therefore, one must learn how to present collected data and analysis.
  • Principal aim of research report is for others to understand what the new study is all about; what is says and what the conclusions are.
  • Research report is not meant for self but is for communication with the readers, the audience.
Organization of Research Report

Research report can be written and presented in three parts:
  1. Preliminaries.
  2. Body.
  3. Accessory.

They contain:
  1. Front fly leaf (blank).
  2. Title page giving title of research topic, researcher’s name, guide’s name, institute’s name (if applicable).
  3. Approval page.
  4. Acknowledgements.
  5. Dedication (optional).
  6. Table of contents.
  7. List of tables.
There is no hard and fast rule about the number of chapters or their classifications. The researcher can use his creativity here. A rough guideline for organization of the body of the report is given below:
  1. Chapter 1- Introduction: Conceptual frame work and purpose of the research project etc.
  2. Chapter 2- Review of Existing Literature: Summary of the current state of researches in the area if available.
  3. Chapter 3- Research Design: Statement of the problem, sample, method of data collection etc.
  4. Chapter 4- Results and Discussion: presentation of data through narration, tables, pictorial presentations and arriving at inferences applying relevant statistical reasoning.
  5. Chapter 5- Conclusions: Recommendations and suggestions. Also suggestions, if any, for further research work on the subject.

It contains:
  1. Bibliography.
  2. Appendix.
  3. Questionnaire(s).
General Tips for Research Report
  • Report should be produced on superior quality (say, bond) paper.
  • The material should be only one side of the paper.
  • Spacing used between two lines: double spacing.
  • Make adequate copies of the report as necessary.
  • Take guidance from knowledgeable experts/ persons.
  • Decent binding of the report.
  • Number of pages: as required to make a comprehensive presentation.
For everything you wanted to know on building leadership and management, refer Shyam Bhatawdekar’s website

(Refer our High Quality Management Encyclopedia “Management Universe” at:

It will be a good idea also to refer to: (Written Communication)

For More Guidance, Assistance, Training and Consultation


Also refer: (Prodcons Group), (Training Programs by Prodcons Group) and (Productivity Consultants)

Other Topics of Interest

All Management Topics (General Management, Marketing and Sales, Service, Operations/Manufacturing, Quality, Maintenance, Human Resources, Finance and Accounts, Information Technology, Life Management)

The topics are listed in alphabetic order:

(Home Pages for All the Management Topics) and
(Building Leadership and Management)
(Alphabetic List of All Management Topics)
(Home Page for Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekar)
(5S Housekeeping)
(Activity Based Costing- ABC)
(Anger Management)
(Assessment Centers)
(A to Z of Management Systems)
(A to Z of Quality Techniques)
(Balanced Scorecard)
(Basic Statistics)
(Behavioral Safety)
(Body Language or Non-verbal Communication)
(Books- Best Management Books)
(Business Ethics and Ethics in Management) (Business Plan)
(Business Process Reengineering- BPR)
(Career Planning within Organizations)
(Case Method)
(Case Studies in Management)
(CEO Roles, Qualities and Competencies)
(Change Management)
(Competencies- Life Management)
(Competency Matrix)
(Conflict Management)
(Corporate Governance)
(Cost Management)
(Cost of Quality- COQ)
(Counseling at Workplace)
(Creativity and Innovation)
(Critical Thinking skills)
(Cross Cultural Etiquette and Manners)
(Customer Orientation)
(Customer Relationship management- CRM)
(Daily Management)
(Decision Making)
(Design for Manufacture)
(Dining Etiquette and Table Manners)
(Discipline at Work)
(Dream Exotic)
(Effectiveness and Efficiency)
(Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Efficiency Techniques: Work study: Motion and Time Study)
(Efficient Work Methods or Practices)
(Email Etiquette)
(Emotional Intelligence)
(Enterprise Resource Planning- ERP)
(Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneur)
(Executive Etiquette and Manners)
(Exit Interview)
(Financial Ratios and Financial Ratio Analysis)
(Financial Services)
(Functions of Management)
(Gemba Kaizen)
(Genuine Professional)
(Global Mindset)
(Goal/Target Setting)
(Group Discussion)
(Group Dynamics)
(How to Be a Good Boss)
(How to Get Promoted)
(How to save Money)
(HR Dynamics)
(HR Strategies and Functions)
(Human Capital Architecture)
(Human Relations)
(Human Resource Planning)
(Human Software- HSoftware)
(Internal Motivation or Self Motivation)
(Interpersonal Relations)
(Interview Skills)
(Interview Preparation for Job Seekers)
(Interview Questions)
(Just in Time Management- JIT)
(Knowledge Management)
(Lead Time Management)
(Lean Enterprise)
(Learning Organization)
(Life Management: Competencies)
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Life Management: I Am Liberated)
(Life Positions and OKness)
(Life Skills)
(Management Anecdotes)
(Management Book- Best Books)
(Management Information System- MIS)
(Managing/conducting Meetings)
(Management Notes- Free and Authentic)
(Marginal Utility)
(Marketing Management Overview)
(Marketing Management Tasks)
(Marketing Orientation)
(Market Research)
(Market Segmentation)
(Musings of Shyam Bhatawdekar on every topic on the earth)
(Negotiation Skills)
(Negotiation Tactics)
(Objection Handling)
(Organization Development- OD)
(Organizational Culture)
(Out of Box Ideas)
(Ownership on Job)
(Paradigm and Paradigm Shift)
(Performance Management and Appraisal)
(Positive Strokes)
(Presentation Skills)
(Problem Solving)
(Profit Improvement)
(Project Management)
(Public Speaking)
(Quality Circles History)
(Quality Circles)
(Quality Function Deployment- QFD and House of Quality)
(Quality Gurus)
(Recession Management)
(Recession and Opportunities)
(Recruitment and Selection)
(Research Methodology)
(Safety and Health Management)
(Sales/Selling Process)
(Sales Promotion)
(Self Motivation or Internal Motivation)
(Self Development)
(Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Articles on Management)
(Six Sigma)
(Six Thinking Hats)
(Soft Skills)
(Spiritual Quotient/Intelligence)
(Statistics- Basic)
(Strategic Management)
(Stress Management)
(Stress Management)
(Success in Life or Success)
(Success in Life or Success)
(Supply Chain Management)
(Supply and Demand)
(Talent Management)
(Team Building)
(Telephone Etiquette)
(Three Sixty Degrees Appraisal System)
(Time Management)
(Total Productive Maintenance- TPM)
(Total Quality Management- TQM)
(Training and Development)
(Trainers’ Qualities)
(Transaction Analysis- TA)
(TRIZ- Inventive Problem Solving)
(Value Engineering/Analysis)
(Winners and Losers)
(Work Study: Method Study and Work Measurement)
(Work Methods or Practices: Efficient)
(World Class Manufacturing)
(Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekar on Management)
(Written Communication)
(Zero Based Budgeting)

Counseling: General and Psychological(Anger Management)
(Children’s Behavior Problems)
(Cholesterol Control)
(Counseling: Psychological)
(Counseling: Psychological)
(Cross Cultural Etiquette)
(Executive Etiquette and Manners)
(Family Counseling)
(Health: Homeopathy)
(LifeManagement: Competencies)
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Life management: I Am Liberated)
(Marriage Counseling)
(Ownership on Job)
(Parental Responsibilities)
(Qualities of Spouse)
(Quit Smoking)
(Self Development)
(Stress Management)
(Stress Management)
(Swine Flu and Its Prevention)
(Telephone Etiquette)
(Winners and Losers)

About All the Products
(Home Page for All Products)
(Greeting Cards)
(Mobile Phones)

Home Tips
(Home Page for All Home Tips)
(Entertainment: Movies)
(Oscar Award Movies)
(Entertainment: Recommended Hindi Movies)
(Entertainment- Hindi Movies of Your Choice)
(Plagiarized, Copied or Inspired Hindi Movies)
(Health: Homeopathy)
(Housekeeping at Home)
(How to Save Money) or
(Jewelry Design)
(Recipes: Easy to Cook)
(Recipes: Exotic)
(Stories for Children)
(Travel and Sightseeing- India)
(Travel and Sightseeing- World)
(World Heritage Sites)

General Knowledge and Out of Box Ideas
(General Knowledge- GK)
(General Knowledge- Top 5 of Everything)
(General Knowledge- Top 10 of Everything)
(Out of Box Ideas)
(Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Knols)
(Running Commentary on the Run)


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